3. Appsáalooke Life 1805-2014

(This is the Learning Episode 3 for Shane Doyle (Crow) and Megkian Doyle’s teaching unit, “Living within the Four Base Tipi Poles of the Apsáalooke Homeland.”)

Five 50-minute class periods

  • secondary

By Shane Doyle

Courtesy Marquette University Archives, Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions image 10637. Chief Plenty Coups, last chief of the Apsáalooke, with General Diaz and with his granddaughter.

Courtesy Marquette University Archives, Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions image 10637. Chief Plenty Coups, last chief of the Apsáalooke, with General Diaz and with his granddaughter.

COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS

CCSS Literacy RST 10-2

Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; trace the text’s explanation or depiction of a complex process, phenomenon, or concept; provide and accurate summary of the text.

CCSS Literacy RST 10-5

Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in the text, including relationships among key terms (awareness, balance, and choice).

CCSS Literacy WHST 10-2d

Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.

CCSS Literacy WHST 10-6

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. (If using online story-writing tools.)

CCSS Literacy SL 10-1

Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

CCSS Literacy SL 10-1d

Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

 

STUDENT OBJECTIVES

Students will be able to

  • Evaluate the function and structure of historical relationships
  • Identify the impact of these relationships and values inherent within them
  • Consider multiple cultural perspectives on relationships and values within relationships
  • Evaluate personal relationships

 

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

  • Were the relationships established in the readings genuine or manipulative or both?
  • What are the components of a relationship and how do we recognize genuine and healthy relationships?
  • What roles do awareness, balance, and choice have in relationships both historically and contemporarily?
  • How do our relationships with those we consider “the other” impact personal, local, and global outcomes?
  • How will relationships mold our future?

 

ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE

Suggested Formative Assessment of Learning Outcomes

  • Discussion of components of relationships.
  • Notes on relationships observed in the text readings.
  • Discussion on Lewis and Clark era relationships—perspective, approach, and historical impact.
  • Discussion of contemporary relationship to improve and creation of effective action plan.
  • Initiation of action plan and discussion of results.

Culminating Performance Assessment of Learning Outcomes

Journal entries should show evaluation of relationships for awareness, balance, and choice as well as health and also propose appropriate improvements.

Teaching stories should show evidence of clear understanding of relationship lesson(s), use proper conventions of grammar, and be crafted with care and attention to detail.

 

LEARNING MAP

Background

Lewis and Clark never formally encountered the Apsáalooke while traveling through their lands along the Yellowstone River. On their return trip Clark looked for the Crows and intended to lecture them for stealing his horses, but was unable to find them. Even though there was no contact between the Corps and the Apsáalooke at that time, there was no avoiding their impact on the relationships that made up the Crow world at that time. The readings below explore the interconnected nature of relationships between the Apsáalooke and Europeans, the Corps, other tribes, and their own clansmen during the time of Lewis and Clark.

 

ENTRY QUESTIONS

  • Can you create a definition for “relationship” that encompasses all the types of human connection you believe fit into this category?
  • What are the components of a relationship (what things have to be present) and how do you recognize a healthy relationship?

 

MATERIALS

  • Parading Through History by Fredrick Hoxie, pages 32-44 can be read on google books.com.
  • Lewis and Clark Through Indian Eyes edited by Alvin M. Josephy, Jr. pages 71 (Indian Business) and 83-84 (If the Corps had Discovered the Crows)
  • The ABC’s of Healthy Relationships for Teens. Palo Alto Medical Foundation

 

LEARNING MODALITIES

  • Auditory
  • Visual

 

SITUATED PRACTICE

Using the table below begin a discussion with students about the relationships they observe in the world around them. As a class fill in one example of each of the types of relationships listed below.

  • Personal
  • Public
  • Business
  • Political

 

Example

Type: Personal

Relationship: Me and my mom

Purpose: Love and support

Attributes: Communication, respect, patience, forgiveness, trust

Evaluation: Healthy—I obey her out of repsect, but she also listens to me and respects me.

 

OVERT INSTRUCTION

Turn students’ thinking toward the historical lesson by asking them to take notes on the relationships they recognize as you read the text from Parading Through History and Lewis and Clark Through Indian Eyes. Following the readings, allow students to refer to their notes and compile a list on the board of all the relationships observed. What role does culture play in these relationships? How do the groups/people perceive each other and how does this impact the way in which they try to relate to one another? Are the relationships effective or ineffective? Are they healthy or unhealthy? What impact do the relationships have on how things will turn out later?

 

CRITICAL FRAMING

Open The ABC’s of Healthy Relationships website (Awareness, Balance, and Choice). Allow students to explore the contents and consider the messages. Now ask students to get into pairs and apply the ideas of Awareness, Balance, and Choice to one of the relationships that were listed on the board during the earlier Lewis and Clark readings. Engage the class in a discussion of the following questions.

  • Were the relationships established in the readings genuine or manipulative or both?
  • What are the components of a relationship and how do we recognize genuine and healthy relationships?
  • What roles do awareness, balance, and choice have in relationships both historically and contemporarily? Try to talk about specific examples.
  • How do our relationships with those we consider “the other” or significantly different or unknown impact personal, local, and global outcomes?
  • How will relationships mold our future?

 

TRANSFORMED PRACTICE

In your journal write about at least two of the most significant relationships in your life. Evaluate these relationships. Consider the role of awareness, balance, and choice in each one. Come to a conclusion about whether each is healthy or unhealthy. Create a list of at least three things that can be done within each relationship to improve them or to find healthier options. (Teachers may opt to grade these entries or allow students to write but leave them ungraded since students may consider their contents private.) After students have had the opportunity to write individually about relationships, work as a whole class to consider an important relationship they recognize in their current lives that is not as positive as it should be or as they want it to be. As a class devise a plan with specific steps to improve this relationship. How can they enhance their awareness within this relationship? Is there something out of balance within it? What is the role of choice within it? Once a plan has been designed consider: How will the future change if we enact our plan? As a class, walk out your ideas and then evaluate the outcome. Examine specific lessons that the students learned as a result of this process. List these lessons on the board.

Once students have listed a number of lessons, ask them to consider the value of these lessons to younger students. How could these lessons help younger students to have better and healthier relationships? Combine your class with a class of younger students. Give each of your students a “buddy”. Make sure students understand the full scope of this project before they begin working with their “buddies”. For one class period allow the pairs of students to talk together about relationships or friendships and what makes them challenging, valuable, important, needed, etc. After your students have had a chance to establish a relationship with their “Buddies,” ask the students to combine the lessons they have learned with what they know about their younger friends and write a teaching story for them. Encourage students to use animals or fictional characters and to illustrate their books. At the next meeting allow students to present and read their stories to their buddies.

 

DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION FOR ADVANCED AND EMERGING LEARNERS

Struggling students may benefit from using the table provided above to evaluate their relationships during the journaling assignments. Rather than writing in paragraph form, they may complete the table and then discuss with the teacher the ways in which they could improve these relationships or write a bulleted list of improvements to accompany the table. When students begin composing their stories they may use story writing tools that can be found online such as those found at http://cooltoolsforschools.wikispaces.com/Writing+Tools. Sometimes writing or typing an entire story seems completely overwhelming for a struggling student (or an advanced student with very developed plot ideas as well). In this case, allowing students to make an audio recording of their story can be a helpful pre-step to getting the story on paper. Once the story is recorded it can be transcribed and then edited. If you have access, you may also be able to use computer applications that will transcribe audio files to text automatically. Advanced learners should be paired with advanced students in the younger grade and encouraged to write stories that are challenging both in content and vocabulary. Advanced students may also explore and write about more complex relationships between cultural groups in the world and the news around them. This will expand their knowledge of relationships in the contemporary context as they relate to the historical context.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Parading Through History by Fredrick Hoxie. (1995) Cambridge University Press. New York, NY.

Lewis and Clark Through Indian Eyes edited by Alvin M. Josephy, Jr. (2006). Random House. New York, NY.

The ABC’s of Healthy Relationships for Teens. Palo Alto Medical Foundation http://www.pamf.org/teen/abc/

Using Primary Resources

There are quotes in both of the historical readings that are directly derived from trader and explorer’s logs. These quotes can be read in their original contexts if desired.