Photograph by Nick Sanyal, Used with Permission
“Native people have important stories to tell, stories about the past, the present, and the future. Catching the public’s ear with Lewis and Clark is a good way to begin to talk about other stories—stories about land and water, endangered languages and threatened sacred sites.”
–James P. Ronda (2007, p. 346)
Students begin episode 2 by finding their location on a “map of rivers” that includes no written words or boundary lines. They then read a description of the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail (the “Trail”) and draw a route on the “map of rivers” that they think the Lewis and Clark expedition may have followed. Next, they compare the route they drew to maps showing the actual routes taken. Vocabulary associated with “place” is introduced and then used in analyzing written text pertaining to the Trail. Students go on to view events surrounding the Lewis and Clark story through two timelines—one linear and the other circular. Finally, the purpose of the Trail and associated themes are examined through written and visual texts.
Selected Common Core State Standards
- Reading–Informational Text 4.1, 4.4, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9
- Writing 4.2
- Speaking and Listening 4.1
- Language 4.4
- Where am I?
- How do we know where we are?
- How do we understand a place?
- What is important to learn about tribes during and after the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial?
PDF: Text 2-1 LEWIS AND CLARK NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL
*Excerpts from Foundation Document
PDF: Text 2-2 Maps of Lewis and Clark expedition routes
PDF: Text 2-3 Place-Based Multiliteracies Student Guide
PDF: Text 2-4b Small Group Activities
PDF: Text 2-4c Teacher Resource
PDF: Text 2-5 HONORING TRIBAL LEGACIES TIMELINE
PDF: Text 2-6 A Circular Timeline
PDF: Reproducible 2-1 A Map of Rivers
PDF: Reproducible 2-2 CONCEPT MAP OF PLACE
- Colored pencils
- Student-created journal and pencil (also used in Episode 1)
- Poster paper and colored markers
- Sticky notes
- Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail portfolio (also used in Episode 1)
Overt Instruction and Critical Framing
Understanding a Place Using a Map
“Where am I?”
Give students a copy of Reproducible 1, Map of Rivers, that includes no words, boundary lines, or roads. Instruct them to answer the question, “Where am I?,” by finding their location on the map. Then ask, “How do you know where you are?” The map allows students to orient themselves spatially based on the rivers, bodies of water, and mountains. Students may also identify means not involving map use, such as stories told through the oral tradition.
Read Aloud Accompanied by Map Use
Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail
Give students a copy of Text 1, Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail. Read aloud the first section, “Description of Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail.” Then, ask students to draw the route that they think the Lewis and Clark expedition followed on the Map of Rivers using a colored pencil. Tell students that the beginning and ending points of the journey are marked with stars.
Now have students compare the route they thought the expedition traveled to a map of the expedition route. You can use the Traditional Trail Map to make this comparison. This map allows the user to zoom in to examine specific locations. Instruct students to draw a revised line(s) on their maps with a different colored pencil to represent the actual route(s). Ask students why their original line may vary from the actual route taken. Possible answers may relate to the rough terrain of the mountains, impossible rapids on rivers, waterfalls, weather conditions, such as deep snow, or getting lost.
Using the Traditional Trail Map, point out some of the tribes along the route. The map on the Tribal Legacies website can also be accessed to display tribal homelands along the Trail. Instruct students to write a one-paragraph summary in their journals of how the information presented visually through the maps helped them understand the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail.
Understanding a Place
Give each student a copy of Text 2-3, Honoring Tribal Legacies Place-Based Multiliteracies: Student Guide. Point out that the background for the heading is a map drawn by William Clark. Explain that maps provide one way to learn about a place, such as the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, but there are many additional ways. Tell students that they are now going to learn about words that are used to understand and talk about places. Go over the definitions associated with each of the five key terms: (a) natural environment, (b) peoples, (c) built environment, (d) time, and (e) scope of territory. Show Reproducible 2.2, Concept Map of Place, to students via a document camera and post a large version of the concept map on a wall to serve as an ongoing point of reference. State that students will use these terms in the next activities.
Read Aloud and Discuss
Days 2 and 3
Give students a copy of Text 2-4a, A Guide to Visiting the Lands of Many Nations and to the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial. Have them follow along as you read the text aloud. This text is also available with accompanying photographs. Start by reading the headings and subheadings. In particular, emphasize the seven headings that answer the question, “What’s important to know about American Indian people today?” Then, go back and read the entire text. At the end of a sentence or a paragraph, model the process of figuring out the meaning of unfamiliar words using strategies described in Episode 1. Encourage students to add new vocabulary to their word banks at the end of the activity. After reading through the entire text, have students describe how the visual structure (headings and font) contributes to identification of the main ideas.
Form small groups and give each group a copy of one section of Text 2-4b, A Guide to Visiting the Lands of Many Nations and to the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial. Each section contains a heading, a paragraph, and a box that identifies elements of place (e.g., natural environment, peoples, built environment, and time) represented in the narrative and associated key points. Explain that the element of place, scope of territory, is associated with the entire Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail. Instruct each group to identify and write down reasons and evidence (details and examples) expressed in the paragraph that support the key points identified. Bring the large group together and have each small group present the key points along with supporting evidence they have identified.
Next, using a projector show the photographs included in the online version of Text 2-4a. Lead a large group discussion to describe ways that the visually presented information contributes to an understanding of the written text. In particular, focus on how people in the photographs feel. Do they appear to feel happy? Proud? Why would they feel that way? In closing, go back to the question, “What’s important to know about American Indian people today?”, and re-read the seven sub-headings.
Understanding a Place Using Timelines
Explain that timelines help us understand a place. Timelines can help increase our awareness of what is or was going on in the surrounding environment at a particular time. Timelines also can take on different forms, depending on whose perspective of time is presented. Have students form small groups. Give each group a copy of Text 2-5, Honoring Tribal Legacies Timeline. Explain that the timeline depicts regional and national events that occurred around the time of the Lewis and Clark expedition up through today. Ask students to look at all of the items that are presented in bold. These are directly connected to the Lewis and Clark expedition, its 100th and 150th anniversaries, formation of the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, and the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial. Now look at the right column to identify patterns in representation of tribal voices. Ask students to identify events that may relate to the increase in representation of tribal voices. After students complete their review of the timeline, call them together to share ideas with the whole class.
Now, present Text 2-6, “A Circular Timeline,” to the large group by projecting it via document camera, as a power point slide, or as a drawing on a large sheet of poster paper. Ask students to recall what they learned about tribal perspectives on time as described in Text 2-4. (Examples of responses might be “The past, present, and future are connected” and “This is our home. We will always be here.”) Ask students what else might be inferred from the circular form. (Examples of responses might be “The encounters between the Lewis and Clark expedition and tribal peoples represent only a pinpoint in time” or “Everything in life is connected.”) Following the discussion, instruct students to write a one-paragraph summary in their journals of how timelines help us understand a place, such as the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail.
Vocabulary and Read Aloud with Visual Aids
Go back to written Text 2-1, Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail. Read key vocabulary and definitions listed in the middle of the first page. Then read aloud the second section, “Purpose of Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail.” Next, using a projector show the illustrations and photographs included in the online version of Text 2-1. Tell the students that this activity will focus on what is meant by “interpretation.” For each illustration or photograph, lead a large group discussion to identify and describe ways that the visually presented information contributes to an understanding of “interpretation” and how “interpretation” relates to the five place elements (i.e., natural environment, peoples, built environment, time, and scope of territory). There are 20 illustrations and photographs in total.
Return to written Text 2-1 and have students go to the section, “Selected Themes.” Start by reading aloud the three subheadings and point out that each subheading is followed by a paragraph written in italics and another written in a standard font. Tell students, “The two paragraphs under each heading state similar ideas. If you have questions about vocabulary or phrases in the italicized paragraph, you can use information presented in the second paragraph to figure out meanings.” Read aloud the text as students follow on their individual copies.
Tying It Together
Instruct students to form small groups and provide each group with a sheet of poster paper, sticky notes, and colored markers. Have each group write the three themes identified in Text 2-1 on their poster: (a) Encountering Indigenous Peoples, (b) Unity through History, and (c) Traces of the Past Observed Today. Have the students keep out their copies of Text 2-1, Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, and pull out their copies of Text 2-4b, A Guide to Visiting the Lands of Many Nations and to the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial. State that each group will be reviewing Text 2-4b to identify evidence (details and examples) that can be used to support the three Trail themes. Each student can place sticky notes containing evidence under a particular theme. This allows the opportunity for the small group to discuss points of evidence and their placement. After agreement is achieved for placement of particular points, students identify the elements of place that are associated with each of these points. Next, points of evidence along with the associated element of place are written on the poster with a marking pen and the sticky notes are removed. Instruct students to post their papers on the wall when their group has finished recording responses. Each small group then shares their responses with the whole class. In closing, the teacher summarizes the overall student responses and each student places all Episode 2 materials in his/her Trail portfolio.
- Find locations of specific tribes and place names on the Interactive Trail Map
- Extend the content by reading advanced texts identified in Episode 4
- Preview text to identify key vocabulary to add to your word bank
- Draw a picture associated with part or parts of a text and write a sentence to describe it
- Review the concept map of place and relate key vocabulary to the various elements
SUGGESTED FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING OUTCOMES
- Students identify their location and the route of the Lewis and Clark expedition on a map of rivers
- Students write a one-paragraph summary of how information presented visually on maps helped them understand the Trail
- Students enter key vocabulary into a “Word Bank” activity sheet
- Students identify in writing reasons and evidence that support key points made in a text
- Students write a one-paragraph summary of how timelines help us understand a place
- Students construct a poster integrating information from two texts