Supplementary Web-based Readings

This is page contains web-based readings, listed in alphabetical order by title, to accompany the modules in the “Shaping the Way We Teach English” multimedia product:

Introductory/Overview Articles

30 Years of TEFL/TESL: A Personal Reflection, by Jack Richards.

Brain Research: Implications for Second Language Learning, (ERIC Digest), by Fred Genesee.

Communicative Language Teaching: An Introduction And Sample Activities, (ERIC Digest), by Ann Galloway, Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL).

Foreign Language Instruction: Implementing the Best Teaching Methods, from the American Educational Research Association (AERA).

Increasing Student Engagement and Motivation: From Time-on-Task to Homework, Northwest Regional Educational Lab (NWREL), by Cori Brewster & Jennifer Fager.

Language Teaching Methodology, (ERIC Digest ED), by Theodore S. Rodgers.

Professional Development for Language Teachers, (ERIC Digest EDO-FL-03-03), by Gabriel H. Diaz-Maggioli.

Promoting a Language Proficient Society: What You Can Do, (ERIC Digest EDO-FL-00-01), by Kathleen M. Marcos and Joy Kreeft Peyton.

What We Can Learn From Foreign Language Teaching In Other Countries, (ERIC Digest EDO-FL-01-06), by Ingrid Pufahl, Nancy C. Rhodes, and Donna Christian.

Module 01, Contextualizing Language

Approaches to Instruction, Teaching the Skills, from Saskatchewan Learning. An overview of teaching language skills with a focus on language in context.

Balanced Literacy: An Overview, from Teaching Matters. An example of ways to teach literacy skills with a focus on language in context [no longer available as of 11/11/09].

Contextual Factors in Second Language Acquisition, ERIC Digest EDO-FL-00-05, by Aída Walqui.

Film in the Classroom, by Kitty Johnson. An example of how to combine language in context with films in the classroom [linked to an archived PDF file as of 02/15/10].

Project GLAD, Guided Language Acquisition Design (GLAD).

Project-Based Instruction: Creating Excitement for Learning, August 2002, by Jennifer Railsback.

Module 02, Building Language Awareness

Developing Metacognitive Awareness, The Missing Dimension, by Gail Ellis. Language awareness as part of a larger meta-cognitive awareness framework.

Language Awareness/Learning Awareness in a Communicative Approach: A Key to Learner Independence, by Luciano Mariani.

Learning Guide: Hints, Activity Sheets, and Worksheets, from University Language Centre, The University of Manchester [no longer available as of 06/08/2009].

Reading Proficiency, Reading Strategies, Metacognitive Awareness and L2 Readers, by Meena Singhal.

Vocabulary: Phrasal Verbs, from OneStopEnglish. A concrete example of one way to build awareness while teaching phrasal verbs.

Module 03, Integrating Skills

Content-based Surveys and Interviews, by Judie Haynes.

Content-ESL across the USA: A Training Packet, from National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs (NCELA) [no longer available as of 06/08/2009].

ESL Telling, from Cathy Spagnoli. Storytelling can be useful for combining receptive (listening, reading) and productive (speaking, writing) skills.

FORUM: Into, Through, and Beyond. A Framework to Develop Content-Based Material, by Donna M. Brinton and Christine Holten.

FORUM: Project Work, A Means to Promote Language Content, by Fredricka L. Stoller.

Games & Activities for the ESL/EFL Classroom, A Project of The Internet TESL Journal. Ice-breakers and games can be good activities to use as a platform for integrating skills, especially when blended or expanded with additional tasks.

Integrated Skills in the ESL/EFL Classroom, (ERIC Digest EDO-FL-01-05), by Rebecca Oxford.

Problem-Based Learning in Language Instruction: A Constructivist Method (ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading, English, and Communication Digest #132), by Mardziah Hayati Abdullah.

Readers Theater for Bilingual/ESL Students, by LaVon Bridges.

Teaching English: Content Based Instruction, by Nik Peachey [no longer available as of 06/08/2009].

Things to Do with Content-based Material, by Tom Robb.

Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS), from Blaine Ray.

Module 04, Pair and Group Work

Assessing Groupwork, from the Centre for the Study of Higher Education (CSHE).

Classroom Strategies for Encouraging Collaborative Discussion, National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education (NCELA), Directions in Language and Education, National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, No. 12, Summer 1998. By C. Simich-Dudgeon.

Cooperative and Collaborative Learning, A self-paced online workshop in the Concept to Classroom series, from Thirteen Ed.

Cooperative Learning, When to use it, how to manage it, and ways to assess it. From Angela Powell [no longer available as of 11/11/09].

Group Work v. Whole-class Activities, by Simon Andrewes [no longer available as of 11/11/09].

Group Work Rubrics and Checklists, from Canada’s National Adult Literacy Database (NALD).

Guidelines: Learning Cooperatively, C-ESL Guide No. 12 from National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education (NCELA). A Descriptive Study of Content-ESL Practices, Volume III: Training Packet Material, by Grace Stovall Burkart and Ken Sheppard.

Project PARA, Unit 3: Organization and Management of the Classroom, Lessons 1 through 6 [no longer available to the public as of 11/11/09].

Promoting Oral Fluency via Group and Pair Work, by Andy Hoodith, Saitama University.

Rubric Group Grading, by Donna Marie Blakeney.

Module 05, Learner Feedback

Assessment Commentary, by David Grant, of Geraldine Dodge Foundation [no longer available to the public as of 11/11/09].

Assessing the Learning Environment, from Indiana State University.

Error Correction, from Jo Budden [no longer available to the public as of 11/13/09].

Error Correction 1 and Error Correction 2, by Rolf Donald [no longer available to the public as of 11/13/09].

Evaluating Student Work I, from the UCLA Teaching Assistant Training Program.

Giving Feedback on Communicative Activities, by Tim Bowen, at

Responding to Student Papers: Responses to Avoid and Productive Advice to Give, by Jessica Mosher.

Second Language Writing and Research: The Writing Process and Error Analysis in Student Texts, by Johanne Myles.

Student Correction During Class – How and When? by Kenneth Beare.

Module 06, Managing Large Classes

11 Techniques for Better Classroom Discipline, from The Honor Level System.

Classroom Management: Discipline & Organization, from Can Teach in Canada. Acquire tips sheets: A List of Ways to Encourage Good Behaviour; A List of Reward Ideas; Creating a Random Seating Plan; “I’m Done, Now What”: A List of Things to Do After Seat Work; A List of Tried and True Theme Ideas; School/Class Pledges; A List of Fundraising Ideas; and, A List of Bulletin Board Ideas.

Developing a School-Wide Behavior Management System, by Tom McIntyre. Also see:
School-Wide Behavioral Management Systems, by Mary K. Fitzsimmons.

Establishing Effective Schoolwide Behavior Management and Discipline Systems, by Kent D. Peterson [no longer available as of 11/11/09].

Creating a Climate for Learning, Effective Classroom Management Techniques, from Education World.

Classroom Management: Ten Teacher-Tested Tips! From Education World.

Class Routines, A Self-Rating Scale, from the Cooke Center, NY.

FORUM: Tape Recorders, Role-Plays, and Turn-Taking in Large EFL Listening and Speaking Classes, by Xiao Haozhang.

How to Manage a Large Class, by Aida L. Pasigna. Also available from the IEQ Project.

Top 10 Tips for Classroom Discipline and Management, by Melissa Kelly.


Module 07, Learning Strategies

Autonomous Learning Modules, for Listening and Reading, from Helsinki University Language Centre, Finland.

Cognitive Science and Assessment, (ERIC Digest ED481716), by Carol Boston.

Conversation Strategies, from English Language Institute, University of British Columbia.

Keys to Better Listening, from English Language Centre, Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

Language Learning Strategies: An Overview for L2 Teachers, from Michael Lessard-Clouston.

Language Learning Strategies: An Update, (ERIC Digest), by Rebecca Oxford.

Listening Styles and Listening Strategies, by David Huron. Written for listening to music but could be applied to non-musical listening as well.

Reading Strategies: What Do Good Readers Do? What Can You Do to Become a Better Reader? from Panhandle Area Educational Consortium (PAEC).

The Role of Metacognition in Second Language Teaching and Learning, (ERIC Digest EDO-FL-01-10), by Neil J. Anderson.

Strategy Instruction, (ERIC Digest ED474302), by Pat Beckman.

Strategy Training for Second Language Learners, (ERIC Digest EDO-FL-03-02), by Andrew Cohen.

Using Cognitive Strategies to Develop English Language and Literacy, (ERIC Digest EDO-FL-02-05), by JoAnn Crandall, Ann Jaramillo, Laurie Olsen, and Joy Kreeft Peyton.

Writing: Instructional Philosophy and Teaching Suggestions, from Evergreen Curriculum Guides & Resources, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Module 08, Authentic Materials

Authentic Materials and Cultural Content in EFL Classrooms, by Ferit Kilickaya. Internet TESL Journal.

Collaborating with Students to Build Curriculum that Incorporates Real-Life Materials, by Charissa Ahlstrom.

Culture in Second Language Teaching, (ERIC Digest EDO-FL-03-09), by Elizabeth Peterson and Bronwyn Coltrane.

Developing Listening with Authentic Materials, by Lindsay Miller.

Effective Ways to Use Authentic Materials with ESL/EFL Students, from Charles Kelly, Lawrence Kelly, Mark Offner and Bruce Vorland.

FORUM: Adapting Authentic Materials for Language Teaching, by Steven Darian.

From Lessons to Life: Authentic Materials Bridge the Gap, by Maria Spelleri [no longer available as of 11/11/09].

The Outside World as an Extension of the EFL/ESL Classroom, by Mark A. Pegrum. Internet TESL Journal.

Selecting Authentic Materials (Reading, Listening, Viewing), by Chantal Thompson.

Using Authentic Materials, by Sam Shepherd [no longer available as of 11/11/09].

Module 09, Critical and Creative Thinking

Creative and Critical Thinking in Language Classrooms (I-TESL-J), by Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan.

The Critical Thinking Community, Library of Articles, from Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Project Templates. A practical application of Socratic questioning [no longer available as of 11/13/09].

Learning Domains or Bloom’s Taxonomy, The Three Types of Learning, by Donald Clark.

Learning through Discussion: Designing Tasks for Critical Inquiry and Reflective Learning, (ERIC Digest ED477611), by Karen Ngeow and Yoon-San Kong.

Role Playing Games and Activities Rules and Tips, from

Six Thinking Hats, based on Edward de Bono’s work.

Teaching Thinking Skills, by Kathleen Cotton [no longer available as of 11/13/09].

Module 10, Alternative Assessment

Creating Rubrics, from Teacher Vision. Articles 1 through 5.

Developing Classroom Performance Assessments and Scoring Rubric, Part I and Part II, (ERIC Digests ED481714 and ED481715), by Barbara M. Moskal. This article also contains references to articles from:
– Brualdi’s Implementing Performance Assessment (ERIC Digest ED423312), and
– Mertler’s Designing Scoring Rubrics for Your Classroom.

Ongoing Assessment of Language, Literacy, and Content Learning, from The Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory, Teaching Diverse Learners.

Peer and Cross-Age Tutoring, School Improvement Research Series (SIRS) from Northwest Regional Educational Lab (NWREL), Close Up #18, by Page Kalkowski [no longer available as of 11/13/09].

Portfolio Assessment in the Foreign Language Classroom, from National Capital Language Resource Center (NCLRC). Parts 1 through 10.

Project Based Learning Checklists, from ALTEC, University of Kansas.

Practical Ideas On Alternative Assessment For ESL Students, (ERIC Digest), by Jo-Ellen Tannenbaum.

Student Portfolios: Classroom Uses, and Student Portfolios: Administrative Uses, from Office of Research, Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) of the U.S. Department of Education.

Using Peer Tutoring to Facilitate Access, from The Access Center, U.S. Department of Education.

Module 11, Individual Learner Differences

Differentiation of Instruction in the Elementary Grades, (ERIC Digest), by Carol Ann Tomlinson. Although not for L2 per se, it offers good advice for mixed ability classes with younger learners in general.

Exploring “The Theory of Multiple Intelligences,” from Accelerated Learning Network.

Howard Gardner, Multiple Intelligences and Education, from Mark K. Smith.

Learning Styles and Strategies, by Richard M. Felder and Barbara A. Soloman.

Learning Styles and Teaching, from Cheron Verster [no longer available as of 11/13/09].

Learning Styles: Learn Effectively by Understanding Your Learning Preferences, from MindTools.

Multiple Intelligences: Theory and Practice in Adult ESL, (ERIC Digest), by Mary Ann Christison and Deborah Kennedy.

Pedagogy: Learning Styles, from Jessica Blackmore [no longer available as of 11/13/09].

Teaching Multilevel Adult ESL Classes, (ERIC Digest EDO-LE-95-02), by Cathy C. Shank and Lynda R. Terrill.

Module 12, Younger Learners

Thematic Literature and Curriculum for English Language Learners in Early Childhood Education, (ERIC Digest EDO-FL-02-08), by Betty Smallwood.

Transition Techniques: Maximizing time on task through clear directions, brain breaks, and easy clean-up [no longer available as of 11/13/09].

Using Children’s Literature with Young Learners, by E. Brown, Internet TESL Journal.

Working With Young English Language Learners: Some Considerations, (ERIC Digest EDO-FL-03-01), by Bronwyn Coltrane.

Module 13, Teacher Development: Peer Observation

Assess Teaching with Observation. From by Instructional Assessment Resources (IAR), University of Texas at Austin.

Peer Observation, by Graham White [no longer available as of 11/13/09].

Peer Observation for Teaching Assessment, from College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois-Urbana Champagne.

Peer Observation of Classroom Teaching, from For Your Consideration #15, Center for Teaching and Learning, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Teachers Observing Teachers: A Professional Development Tool for Every School, from Education World, School Administrators Article.

Module 14 , Teacher Development: Reflective Teaching

Developing an Academic Portfolio: Guidelines. From UT Sydney, Australia. (2004). Information on Academic Portfolios, organized records of teachers’ academic experiences, achievements and professional development over a period of time. It consists of a collection of documents which illustrate the variety and quality of work, along with reflections on these documents and on the teachers’ development over time.

Portfolio guides and checklists for teacher development, from Sarah Klinghammer:
– Portfolio Process
– Portfolio Contents Guide
– Portfolio Conference Guide
– Checklist: Self-Evaluation
– Checklist: Peer Evaluation
– Checklist: Final Evaluation

Reflective Practice and Professional Development, (ERIC Digest ED449120), by Joan M. Ferraro.

Reflective Teaching: Exploring Our Own Classroom Practice, by Julie Tice.

Reflective Teaching: Situtating Our Stories, by Kathleen M. Bailey.

Teacher Mentoring as Professional Development, (ERIC Digest ED460125), by Leslie Huling and Virginia Resta.

Towards Reflective Teaching, by Jack C. Richards.

Product Information: “Shaping the Way We Teach English”

A new offering from the Office of English Language Programs, Shaping the Way We Teach English, is a 14-module teacher training video series. This product incorporates classroom scenes from around the world and is accompanied by a teacher trainer manual and additional readings. Shaping the Way We Teach English is produced for overseas use and is available only outside the United States. For ordering information, contact a Regional English Language Officer or the Public Affairs section of your local U.S. Embassy.