The River Research Group at the University of Oregon has strengths in river restoration, river environment monitoring and modeling, watershed hydrology and geomorphology, human-river interrelationships, and theoretical fluvial science. Some of our current and past projects are below.
Channel Restoration Monitoring, Middle Fork John Day River, Oregon
A stronghold for wild salmon, the Middle Fork of the John Day River (MFJD) has been affected by historical gold mining, overgrazing by cattle, channel armoring and straightening, and riparian vegetation reduction. For several decades it has been a priority basin for aquatic habitat restoration, and a number of channel restoration projects (engineered log jams, removal of rip-rap and rock structures, planting of woody vegetation on the banks and floodplain, and channel re-meandering) have been completed and are planned. Since 2008 we have been monitoring the effectiveness of these restoration projects in terms of geomorphology and physical habitat. (Other groups are monitoring other aspects of the restoration, including fish, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and water temperature.)
We have two main research goals.
• To understand the degree to which the restoration projects have achieved their ecological goals, and to understand why or why not. We are particularly interested in providing results that can inform the next generation of restoration work on the MFJD and other similar rivers.
• To develop cost-effective methods for river monitoring using new technology such as LiDAR, tablet computers, UAVs, structure-from-motion photogrammetry, and high-resolution aerial imagery.
Through repeat measurements, channel change following project construction is monitored. Monitoring techniques used in the MFJD include the following:
• Channel cross-section morphology (erosion/aggradation, W:D, incision)
• Bed material characteristics (surface and volumetric gravel counts, D50, D95, % fines, embeddedness, armoring)
• Channel planform characteristics (sinuosity, lateral migration)
• Longitudinal profile change
• Fish cover
• Pool frequency and depth
• Log structure morphology and channel effects (difference of DEM survey)
We conduct field work for several weeks each summer. The overall monitoring effort is directed by the MFJD Intensively Monitored Watershed program. Funding has been provided by the Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board, NOAA, and the Confederated tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation.
(McDowell [faculty research], Goslin [PhD dissertation])
Willamette River Fieldwork in Support of NASA SWOT and AirSWOT
Sonar-based bathymetric mapping and hydraulic modeling of the Willamette River provides vital information that has been used to test estimates made by NASA’s AirSWOT instrument, a test instrument used to evaluate the SWOT satellite scheduled for launch in 2020. SWOT (Surface Water Ocean Topography) will map the extent and dynamics of earth’s surface water around the globe every 22 days. Algorithms for mapping river depth and discharge are being tested in different basins around the world, but the Willamette is a primary test basin for midlatitude river systems. (Fonstad [faculty research], Zettler-Mann [student research])
Dynamics of Large River Channel Change, Willamette River, Oregon
This research centers on the historical changes in Willamette River morphology, sediment transport, hydraulics and hydrology, and the interactions of these with near-channel riparian and floodplain areas. One of the goals is to understand the geomorphic effects of management strategies on the river, such as dam operations and channel bank armoring. Techniques include aerial imagery and Lidar-based analysis, sediment measurements on channel bars, modeling of hydraulics and sediment transport, and remote-sensing and sonar-based bathymetric mapping. (Fonstad [faculty research])
Human-River Interactions in Megafan Settings, India
This project focuses on understanding the linkages between structural geometry, morphometric variability, erosional and depositional processes and the scale of human interference that relates to the instability of channels in three megafan settings in actively aggrading basins of the Himalayan mountain front. One of the goals is to map the extent of floodplain disconnection across these megafans. Primary tools in this effort include the use of geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing and easily obtainable topographic and climate data. This ongoing work will have important implications for the understanding of the spatial variability of water-logging and regional flood hazard. (Goswami [PhD dissertation])
Social Construction of Floodplains in the United States
This research aims to take a critical physical geographical lens to trace the steps of knowledge production of Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) from the initial landscape measurement (via surveying, LIDAR, …), through flood modeling by contracted ‘experts’, and the uncertainties and subjective choices that are made through these steps that underlie the final ‘objective’ Flood Insurance Rate Maps. Points of contestation in the production of FIRMs will be examined; more specifically, how pre-FIRMs (preliminary flood maps) are released for public viewing and forums are held where lay citizens can dispute the extent of flood zone mapping. The research seeks to understand how lay citizen knowledge is valued and can possibly override and change flood hazard zones mapped by ‘experts’. Further, this research hope to examine this knowledge production process on “unruly” rivers. Because the National Flood Insurance Program hazard mapping produces static maps of hydrologic hazard but does not account for geomorphic hazards, this research will investigate how river channel migration hazard knowledge from both ‘experts’ and lay citizens is (or is not) included in the process of socially constructing floodplains and how this influences claimed knowledge of river hazards that are more or less ‘true’. (Lea [PhD dissertation])
Post-Eruption Channel Response, South Toutle River, Mt. St. Helens Area, Washington
In 1980, the South Fork Toutle River was devastated by lahars resulting from the eruption of Mt. St. Helens, WA. Decades later, the massive amounts of sediment and debris are still working their way through the area. This unique situation provides researchers with the opportunity to study the recovery of a small river valley after a natural disaster. Historical aerial photos will be used to create DEMs through traditional photogrammetry and present-day photography will be analyzed through the use of Structure from Motion techniques to create DEMs. (Proctor [masters thesis])
Tropical Mountain River Dynamics, Pacuare River, Costa Rica
This research is focused on the geomorphology and sediment transport dynamics of tropical mountain rivers. Reach by reach sediment budgets are being estimated and compared to local geology and downstream fluvial processes on the Rio Pacuare. Modeling will be done to predict impacts of climate change and dam construction scenarios on the geomorphology of these dynamic systems. Data collection and analysis includes a unique combination of traditional survey techniques and Structure From Motion photogrammetry. (Lind [PhD dissertation])
Mountain Stream Dynamics and Mapping Techniques Development, Scott Creek Basin, Oregon
This project focuses on understanding the development of channel geometry and habitats in a high energy, High Cascade stream environment. To measure the stream channels longitudinally in such an extremely complex environment, new mapping techniques based on ground-based structure from motion and Kinect structured light mapping are being developed and tested. A combination of centimeter-scale mapping and agent-based modeling approaches will allow digital stream ecosystem simulation at the organism scale. (Fonstad [faculty research])