Cohn’s “Biblical Origins”

The persecution of Judean Jews under Antiochus IV in the 160s BC forms the socio-historical context for the Book of Daniel. Antiochus desecrated the Temple in Jerusalem, and then later pillaged and burned the city itself. The Jewish community fought this oppression, resulting in the Maccabaean rising in which the Temple was successfully reclaimed.

Though not a Maccabaean manifesto, Norman Cohn argues that the Book of Daniel’s aim was to encourage the (elite) civilian population to remain faithful under persecution.   The setting envisioned by the author of the Book of Daniel is likely Judea, while the four beasts he describes can be read as the imperial powers that ruled over the Jews. The one who appears from the clouds “like a son of man,” whether representative or symbol for the “saints of the Most High,” embodies the promise of future exaltation and vindication for the Jews.

This identification of the Jewish community with the “saints of the Most High” indicates that they will inherit the kingdom of God on earth. The establishment of this new and righteous kingdom is marked by the reconsecration of the Temple in Jerusalem. The Book of Daniel suggests that those Jews who rule over this new kingdom are not only those who are without sin but are those who also followed the teachings of visionaries like those of Daniel. The struggles that the Jewish community faced served as inner purification, elevating them above normal human beings and aligning them with the “holy ones” in Heaven.

The establishment of this holy kingdom is preceded by the judgment of the Seleucid Empire and of all Jews; those who were martyred under Antiochan persecution rather than deny their faith would be rewarded with eternal life. Written during the persecution of the Jews, the Book of Daniel is a narrative of resistance in that it promises retribution and reward for the injustices faced by the Jewish community under Antiochus IV.

Revelation draws heavily on the Book of Daniel, and can be understood as a Christian counterpart to the Book of Daniel. Revelation was written for Christians who still considered themselves Jews (their religion was not yet termed “Christianity”). In its relationship with the Book of Daniel, Revelation demonstrates that the history of the Church follows what has been foretold in scripture.

Early Christians were certain that Jesus would soon return to judge the living and the dead and thereby usher in the great transformation. The war in Heaven described in Revelation has an earthly parallel: the “woman clothed with the sun” represents Israel, with her child representing the Christian community. Satan is assisted on earth by two beasts: the first, representing the Roman Empire, and the second representing the “false prophet” or priesthood of the Roman religion. The Archangel Michael, the patron angel of Israel in the Book of Daniel, ultimately defeats Satan. Revelation was written during the reign of Domitian, and though scholars hotly debate the degree to which Domitian persecuted early Christians, it can be said with certainty that the author of Revelation had a conception of the cosmic order that contrasted markedly with the Hellenistic world in which he lived. Thusly, John, Revelation’s author, viewed the rule of kings and emperors as an expression of Satan’s power and expected God to put an end to both.

Carter, “Vulnerable Power”

Rome attempted to maintain control over its vast empire by creating a totalizing state that governed every aspect of its citizens lives,  Yet, as Carter argues, groups holding beliefs that contrast the Roman ideological program sought to establish a way of life that went against the dominant societal formations which had been present for a significant amount of time.  Carter’s suggestion that early Christian literature does just that, draws from biblical sources that he interprets through the social settings in which the writings were produces, namely the Roman Empire.

In his discussion on Paul, Carter clearly states that Paul is aiming to establish a fully Christian community that opposes the existing state of the Roman Empire, but he also notes that Paul can be seen as an apocalyptic author by applying the literal meaning of “apocalyptic”, disclosing or revealing, to his writings. Carter’s interpretation of Paul’s “double-edged apocalyptic quality” suggests that his descriptions of true Christian life simultaneously condemn established Roman practices.  For Paul, the phrase “one Lord” refers to the Christian God, not the Roman emperor, as was often seen with rulers who wished to deify themselves.  According to Carter, Paul’s assertion of the omnipotence of the Christian God also undermines the all-powerful image many emperors used to maintain dominance and control.  Additionally, Carter identifies exploitation as a major theme that runs through Paul’s writing; exploitation of the peasants by the military, the upper class, and the emperor reveals the unjust social systems that keep Rome alive.  However, Jesus’ death and resurrection shows that release from the oppression of the Roman empire will come despite their attempts to subdue change: the imperials powers killed Jesus, but he did not truly die, he returned to life, just as abusing and persecuting Christians will not destroy their faithfulness.  Carter also discusses Paul’s use of language.  On one side, Paul employs familial language such as sister and brother to counter the patriarchal nature of imperial language that often refers to the emperor as the father.  Yet, Paul also utilizes familiar imperial concepts, like triumph and personal authority, in his descriptions of his Christian community, leading Carter to find inconsistencies in Paul’s writings.

The book of Revelation also addresses the creation of a Christian community, but on a much larger scale than what Paul imagined.  The events of the book describe apocalyptic events on a worldwide scale.  Carter identifies clear parallels between the fallen city in Revelation and the Roman empire, which, for many citizens of the period, could be considered the world.  The manipulation and control the Romans exercised  over its subjects can be paralleled in the beasts of the apocalypse that are controlled by Satan.  These beasts are defeated by God, who lives eternally.  Carter parallels God’s victory over the beasts with the Christians’ triumph over the Roman empire, which will die while the Christians will live forever with God.  He implies that Revelations takes advantage of the empire’s eventual dissolution and the Christian belief in eternal life through resurrection.

Communities of Resistance

Carter uses many examples from the Bible to support his idea that early Christian literature offered, and indeed demanded, an alternative lifestyle to that of Rome. Carter further argues that the Christian adherence to this very non-Roman life made it impossible for Rome to accept or even tolerate the early church.


He uses the Book of Revelation in its historical context to point to images and symbols of a fallen empire. Revelation speaks of the “fallen Babylon,” but John could just as easily be speaking about the anticipated (hopeful) fall of the Roman Empire. Since this document was written during a time of Roman oppression, Carter’s assessment of Revelation does make sense in that context. Even if that was no John’s intent, there is little doubt that the presence of Rome would have influenced the writing. The Christian community would be anxious to see Rome fall the way Babylon did for the Jews. They would want to see God favor the Christians over the Romans.


Carter’s interpretation of Paul’s letters leads us to understand that Paul’s aim was to establish a community of believers whose existence was in direct opposition to Roman rule. He cites Paul’s insistence that salvation comes through Christ alone, and his use of language that evokes images of Christ being the emperor to whom allegiance should be pledged. It’s interesting that he does this, because even though Carter is arguing this large opposition to Rome, Paul could not escape the imagery of Roman rule. What Paul tried to do, however, was to shift the attention away from the sovereignty of Rome, to the sovereignty of Christ. Paul emphasized that worshiping idols was akin to worshiping Satan, which made worshiping the emperors ungodly. He also wrote about Christ coming again, to compare the Kingdom of God, which has no end, to the Empire of Rome, which was surely to fall.


Carter finishes this section with an important question: How are Christian supposed to live? The attitudes that Christians need to have which Paul, Matthew, and John wrote about were in direct opposition to Roman thoughts about civil responsibility. Should they lie about their true allegiance? That would be counter to God’s will for them; they would be putting their soul in jeopardy, but they could also lose their life over it. Other options that Carter brings up are to fight, try to get laws changed, or to try to co-exist. None of these options work for the Christian, and for good reason. A small community of believers oppressed by a larger community of believers needs to stick to its morals in order to come out of the situations feeling like it won.


Carter argues that much of the early Christian writings were, at their base, propaganda against Rome. This might be a stretch, but—at the very least—there is evidence to support the idea that the Roman domination of the known world was on the mind of the early Christian church.

Cohn, “Biblical Origins”

The earliest of apocalyptic writings can be seen in the book of Daniel, which was written in response to the Antiochan persecution of Jews and the Maccabean uprising in 160 B.C.E. Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the Seleucid monarch of Judea, entered the temple of Jerusalem, stripped it of its gold, desecrated it with statues of pagan gods and in an act of sacrilege, built an alter to sacrifice pigs— taboo animals; later he pillaged the city, burned it down, and killed most of its inhabitants including women, and children. It’s no wonder the book of Daniel was written as a response to these atrocities.

The book of Daniel validates the chaos, oppression and destruction occurring under the rule of the Seleucid monarchy and symbolically ties it to the villainous and corrupt King, Nebuchadnezzar (dating back to 6th century) who can be likened to Antiochus IV Epiphanes. The book presents a linear progression of events starting with Nebuchadnezzar’s rule; his certain downfall; the rise of other corrupt empires; the prolonged persecution of the Jews, and a final establishment of God’s kingdom and an end to the righteous’ suffering. The story interpreted in the context of 1st century B.C.E gives hope and encouragement to the Jews: That in all this chaos there is hope, and that this too shall pass. Daniel concludes that God ultimately will judge and condemn the Jew’s oppressors, establish peace and justice, and will inaugurate his sovereignty on earth.

Daniel is orchestrated with references to the oppression of the Jews under the rule of corrupt kingdoms. In chapter 7, the four beasts that come out of the sea symbolize the imperial powers that have ruled over the Jews. The fourth beast that rises out of the sea— the ugliest, and most depraved— is representative of Alexander’s Empire; its horns represent Alexander’s successor states. The vision of the “one like a son of man who appears as on clouds of Heaven” is symbolic of future vindication and exhalation of the Jews. Whereas all past and present earthly empires are successively dominated, controlled and passed from ruler to ruler; the opposite is in store for the Jews, whose Kingdom shall remain standing and “shall never pass away.” This allegory serves to further elicit hope and encouragement to the Jews facing persecution, and shows itself as resistance literature, both explicitly (“to the man,” or rather toward the oppressors) and implicitly (in the form of mental resistance, or rather in a manifestation of certain mechanisms of self-preservation). The vile, wicked, and corrupt rulers of this era will face a pyrrhic and meaningless end— all their self-indulgent efforts, futile and worthless. But the Jews, enduring the difficulties of this present life, will know no such end, because their kingdom will endure strong and steady, and will last forever. For the Jews living at the time that the book of Daniel was written, it gave them a sense of justice, and hope and provided a context with which to frame and situate their oppression. It substantiated their experiences, and provided depth and gave meaning to their sufferings.

The Jews who had experienced martyrdom and who were remarkably holy were expected to inhabit a new god-like body after their resurrection. There was also an expectation of a reformative transformation of the world, and a newly established order. Jewish apocalyptic writings foretold of tribulation and hardship, natural disasters and wars preceding this. This further situated the experiences and expectations of the Jews living under the rule of the Seleucid Empire. Later, Jews living in the first century C.E. believed Jesus to be the referenced “son of man;” this belief permeated their understanding of his moral teachings.

The book of Revelation was written for Christians who identified as the “only true Jews” pit against those who “belonged to Satan.” The book was inspired by more than 300 Jewish scriptures, many coming from the book of Daniel. The 144,000 elect in the book of Revelations are Jews (not yet called Christians) who belong to the twelve tribes of Israel. Symbolism borrowed from Hebrew texts is re-interpreted through a Christian worldview, and these Hebrew Scriptures are used to reinforce an understanding of the prophetic and certain, linear unfolding of events. The book of Daniel is reinterpreted to give credence to the imminent victory of the Christian church. Revelations is presented as the fulfillment of the prophetic traditions of Israel.

The beast that stood for the Seleucid monarchy in the book of Daniel, now stands for the Roman Empire in the book of Revelation. The second beast in revelation symbolizes the priesthood of the official Roman religion; also, John’s view of cosmic order was in direct contrast with that of the Roman Empire; thus, he eagerly waited for God to put an end to it, and for his Kingdom to be established. This shared ideological viewpoint is layered with borrowed symbolism from Daniel and thus functions in the same way as resistance literature, albeit toward the Roman Empire.

Revelations ends with the death of the beast, and its armies—symbolizing the destruction of Rome. After satan has been bond for a thousand years and is set free, he and his legion of demons are conquered by God and his angels. Then there is the restoration of God’s kingdom on earth—the New Jerusalem. This imagery and signification, like that in the book of Daniel, serves to encourage and inspire Jews to live righteously and morally in this life, despite persecution and difficult circumstances, so that they may inherit the blessed kingdom of God.

by. S.S.


For as rosy of a picture as the Roman political powers wanted to show Rome to be, it simply was not the case. Forms of resistance to Roman authority were highly varied and practiced by all sorts of cultural sub groups. Firstly, philosophers were exiled and murdered because they offered complex ideas about democracy that would potentially subvert the power that the Roman emperors wielded over the subjects. Also, prophets, seers and diviners were treated similarly. For example Tacitus (69 ce) prophesied the eventual demise of the state of Rome, leading people to believe he was correct. Besides ideas from philosophers, prophecies from diviners or seers, or other non-violent acts of resistance, there were also forms of violent unrest. These acts of violence could range from public unrest (protesting) to outright violence in the form of riots. Augustus is even known to have withheld food from these rioters as punishment for their unruly behavior. Furthermore, violent acts of resistance also took other forms. There were pirates on the sea and bandits on the land, who would usually rob the Roman elite of their wealth, thus robbing them of their “power”. The Jews also had their own forms of resistance to Roman authority. For example, the Jews staged a sit-in at Pilate’s house when he received images of Caesar. After five days in the sit-in, Pilate ordered the soldiers to kill the protestors. However, when they showed their willingness to be martyred, Pilate withdrew the command, probably knowing that if in fact he created martyrs out of them it would only subvert the Roman authority more. Augustus and other emperors required a daily sacrifice be made twice in their names. Lower priests stopped this sacrifice in a non-violent form of demonstration against Roman authority. Josephus considered this action and the foundation for war with Rome. Lastly, resistance took its form in writing. From Jewish and Egyptian people, they wrote similarly about how Rome’s control and power over them was merely a period of God’s punishment and that eventually he would destroy Rome and lead his chosen people to rule. This is not unlike the narrative that John establishes in the book of Revelation later on. These acts of resistance are interesting due to the fact that the Roman authorities constantly and fervently tried to show Rome as a place of peace, freedom, affluence and happiness. For as much as Rome did in fact dominate so vast a population, it was never without its struggles to maintain its power over its subjects. In fact, given the amount of resistance that documented, it is fair to assume that there was a large portion of the empire that was unhappy with the way they were governed.